Putting Sociology to Work


Proprietary Lecture Notes

(1) RESEARCH is a key aspect of the understanding and scientific advancement of all the sciences including Sociology.

(2) RESEARCH METHODS are specific strategies for systematically conducting research.

(3) NORMALITY: The Bell Curve

(4) SAMPLING - Name 3 types of random sampling in which you could engage today?

(5) 2.1 - Sources of Information

(6) 2.2 - Scientific Method


(7) Variable - a measurable representation of an abstract construct.(University of South Florida)

(8) Correlation - Association.  Positive or Negative.

(9) 2.3 - Types of research:

  • Survey - respondents

  • Experiment

  • Observation & Interviewing(field research) - ANTHROPOLOGY

    • Participant observation

    • Case studies

    • Ethnography

    • Unstructured interviews

  • Existing Data


(10) 2.4 - Ethical Issues

(11) Likert scale.  Designed by Rensis Likert.  A very popular rating scale for measuring ordinal data in social science research. This scale includes simply-worded statements to which respondents can indicate their extent of agreement or disagreement on a five or seven-point scale ranging from “strongly disagree” to “strongly agree.” (University of South Florida) Measurement: 

(12) The Hawthorne Effect - when people behave differently because they know they are being watched. (

(13) Institutional Review Board - The Institutional Review Board (IRB) is an administrative body established to protect the rights and welfare of human research subjects recruited to participate in research activities conducted under the auspices of the institution with which it is affiliated. (Oregon State University)


University of South Florida              

Social Science vs. Natural Science p. 1

 Scientific knowledge pps. 2 - 3

 Scientific Method p. 5